In Finnish culture, nudism is regarded as a relatively standard manner to live. It is not uncommon to see entire families spending time together nude. Families may be nude while bathing in a sauna, swimming in a pool, or playing on a strand, and it is not unusual to see children playing naked in a kindergarten or family yard for example. Nudity as a whole is considered less taboo than many other countries.[41][42][43][44][45]

Main article: Naturism in France

In 1903 la Revue des deux mondes published a report on German nudism and S. Gay created a naturist community at Bois-Fourgon. In 1907, supported by his superiors, Abb Legre encouraged the students at his catholic school to bathe bare on the rugged shores near Marseille.
Sign on the beach at Cap d’Agde

Marcel Kienn de Mongeot is credited with starting nudism in France in 1920. His family had suffered from tuberculosis, and he saw naturism as a cure and a continuance of of the early Greeks. In 1926, he started the magazine Vivre intgralement (after called Vivre) and the first French naturist club, Sparta Club at Garambouville, near Evreux. The court action he initiated, created that nudism was legal on private property that was fenced and screened.[8]
Randonue in Les Concluses, Gard, 2008

Drs. Andr and Gaston Durville purchased a 70 hectare site on the le du Levant where they created the village of Hliopolis. The village was open to the public. In 1925 Dr Franois Fougerat de David de Lastours wrote a dissertation on heliotherapy. and in that year opened the Club gymnique de France. In 1936, the naturist movement was officially recognised.[8]

Albert and Christine Lecocq were active members of many of these clubs, but after disagreements left and In 1944 Albert and Christine Lecocq founded the Club du Soleil with members in 84 cities. In 1948 they founded the FFN, in 1949 they began the magazine, Vie au Soleil and in 1950 opened the CHM Montalivet, the world’s first naturist holiday centre where the INF was formed.[8]

The Quartier Naturiste at Agde offers an alternative form of social nudity. Euronat is the largest vacation centre (335ha) situated 10 km north of . Nudism employs more than 3000 individuals, and is estimated to be worth 250 million Euro to the French market. France is represented on the INF by the FFN.
Main article: Naturism in Germany
See also: Freikrperkultur

German nudism was part of the Lebensreform movement and the Wandervogel youth movement of 1896, from Steglitz, Berlin which encouraged ideas of fitness and vigour. At the exact same time doctors of the Natural Healing Movement were using heliotherapy, treating ailments including TB, rheumatism and scrofula with exposure to sunshine.[34]
Nude beach on the Unterbacher See, near Dsseldorf, Germany

Nacktkultur, a term coined in 1903 by Heinrich Pudor, thrived.[46] Nacktkultur connected nudity, vegetarianism and social reform. It was practised in a network of 200 members clubs. The movement gained prominence in the 1920s as offering a well-being giving life-style with Utopian ideals. Germany printed the first naturist journal between 1902 and 1932.[31] It became politicised by radical socialists who considered it would bring about classlessness and a breaking down of society. It became linked with pacificism.[47]

In 1926, Adolf Koch established a school of nudism in Berlin; encouraging a mix of the sexes, open air exercises, and a programme of “sexual hygiene”. In 1929, the Berlin school hosted the first International Congress on Nudity.[46] at a naturist beach in 1988.

During the National Socialist Gleichschaltung age, all naturist clubs had to enroll with the Reichsbund fr Leibesbungen, which meant excluding Jews and Communists. Also, they had to keep all activities hidden in the countryside where there was little possibility of being seen by others. The status as a West German sports federation member gave the clubs rights and privileges (e.g. tax exemptions) so the naturist clubs stayed in the federation after the war had finished.

After the war, East Germans were free to practice nudism, mainly at beaches rather than clubs (private organizations being regarded as potentially subversive). Nudism became a big component in DDR politics. The Proletarische Freikrperkulturbewegung subsection of the Workers Sports Organisation had 60,000 members.[34] Now, following there are many clubs, parks and beaches open to naturists.[1] though nudity has become less common in the former eastern zone. Germans are usually the most commonly seen foreigners at nude beaches in France and around Europe.[48]
Nude guys at the Przystanek Woodstock festival, 2014